Antitrust is defined as “Legislation to protect trade and commerce from unlawful restraints, price discriminations, price fixing and monopolies.”
The term “antitrust” derives from the U.S. statutes, which were originally formulated to combat a form of business cartelization that became prominent toward the end of the 19th century. Competing corporations would be effectively combined by pooling a controlling share of the stock of each participating company into a single “voting trust.” The great anticompetitive combinations that became the target of progressive legislation in the 1880s and ‘90s were formally structured as voting trusts, and were commonly, and pejoratively, referred to as the “trusts.” Most countries of the Western world have antitrust laws of some form, though more commonly referred to as “competition laws” abroad. For example, the European Union has its own competition law.
Attorney Brian K. Stanley has significant experience in this area of the law.
Securities are a type of transferable interest representing financial value. Traditionally, securities have been categorized into debt and equity securities, and between bearer and registered securities.
The uses that are made of securities have changed over time, both for the issuer and for the holder. Though the purpose of capital raising has sometimes been taken to be a defining characteristic of securities, its uses have expanded greatly in modern times. They are often represented by a certificate. They include shares of corporate stock or mutual funds, bonds issued by corporations or governmental agencies, stock options or other options, other derivatives, limited partnership units, and various other formal “investment instruments.” Transferable interest in commodities like oil, food grains or metals can also be referred to as securities.
However, banknotes, checks, and some bills of exchange do not fall into this category. One can enter into contracts to buy or sell various quantities of commodities in various commodity exchanges. These become transferable interest in the particular commodity.